Baharistan-i-Shahi – Chapter 1

Baharistan-i-Shahi – A Chronical of Mediaeval Kashmirby,

Published with the curtesy of Kashmir news network, translated by Kashi Nath Pandita, Professor of Central Asian History.

Baharistan-i-Shahi, a Persian Manuscript history of Kashmir by anonymous author and brought down to A.D. 1614, has served as an important reference work for historians from the 17th century to the present day. But it has been inaccessible to the non-Persian knowing scholars and historians. Its first English translation is made from a collated text of the two extant manuscripts preserved in the India Office Library and the British Museum. Exhaustive footnotes have been added to it to make it readable and useful.

The chronicle begins with a legendary account of the creation of Kashmir and a summary treatment of the Hindu period. It is followed by a detailed account of the Shahmiri and Chak Sultans of Kashmir taking the narrative to the year A.D. 1614. The historical work gives considerable attention to Baihaqi Sayyids, a group of Sayyids of Iranian origin who played a significant role in the affairs of the kingdom. Baharistan-i-Shahi is essentially a political history of mediaeval Kashmir, though a few aspects of Kashmiri society, such as its feudalistic character, group and factional alignments, communal tensions and recurrent internal power struggles can also be gleaned from it. The concluding portion of the book throws considerable light on relations between the ruling Chak Sultans of Kashmir and the Mughals, and the final annexation of Kashmir by Akbar in A.D. 1587 in somewhat confusing circumstances. The chronicle is also rich in topographical detail.

Baharistan-i-Shahi – Chapter 1 – HINDU PERIOD

Chroniclers [1] of the rulers of the domain of Kashmir, while recording in Kashmiri language [2] the events connected with their rule and also the affairs of people high and low, have written that in distant past the land we call Kashmir had remained submerged in water for two thousand years.[3] In those days, it was called Kashyap Sar. In its neighbourhood there dwelt a married hermit from India [4] named Kashyap. He made supplication to God Almighty for dry land where he could pray. Then God Almighty sent three angels [5] commanding them to drain off the water to make dry as much of land as was required by him. The land which they dried was named by them Kashshile [sic], which means a ‘chiselled stone.’ It is said that subsequently [a person ?] Bekdarat [sic] by name sowed many kinds of seeds in the muddy soil and raised crops, and developed the place extensively. A large number of people came from India to settle on this land. Their king, the exalted Raja, is Turkshil (sic); Turkshil [sic] means ‘unmatched in fortune and dignity.’

This land has been called Kashmir. The source of the Ganges also lies here, [6] [though] it is not accessible [to people]. Kashmir is protected by mountains. At their feet lie vast, clear and attractive lands; these are called tavar. All these lands comprise seventy-two sectors and are spread over one hundred and eight kuroh . [7] Amidst these lands is situated the city of Kashmir,[8] from which emerged people of sixty-four classes. Brahmans are one among them, all of whom are learned, and elderly theologians. After them is the class of Khatrish [sic]. Then come Vaish; they are artisans and peasants. Then follow Chandals, the lowest among the masses; they resemble gipsies.

The ruler who first founded the city of Kashmir was called Pravarasen.[9] It widened under his stewardship. After his death, his sepulchre cracked and he rose to heaven near Maheshwar.[10] He was succeeded to the throne by his son Ratnaditya,[11] who reigned for sixty years. After him, his son Onta Dev reigned for forty years.[12] Lalitaditya[l3] who descended from him ruled for eighty years. The people of Kashmir call him zu’l-Qarnain. It is also said that he brought under his sway the entire world from the borders of China to the farthest west. Many of the idol-houses in Kashmir have been built by him. He also built a city named Parihaspora, [14] which means a ‘peerless city’.[15] In it he built idolhouses, in which he installed huge idols. Each of these measured sixty yards in height.[l6] It is said that in those days it was the usual height of human beings, and a man’s shoulders were as broad as he was tall. Whatever Zu’lQarnain[17] asked of the idol, it was granted to him. The idol was worshipped ardently in his days.[18]

In those days there lived a man who possessed two jewels. The property of one of these was that if cast into an ocean it could dry up all its water, making it possible for anybody to walk across the dried-up path. The property of the other jewel was that when held in front of an ocean, the first one would be drawn to it and water would recede to its original level. Zu’l-Qarnain wanted to buy these two jewels, but the owner declined to part with them, saying that none but Shakyamuni was capable of taking them away from him. Shakyamuni means one who can transfer his soul into another body. [The owner of the jewels] said that he had been freed from all privations and hardships by means of these two jewels.[19]

After the sixth year,[20] he (Zu’l-Qarnain) returned to Kashmir and entrusted the city of Kashmir to his grandson named Ratnatir.[21] Then he proceeded to conquer foreign lands; he did not return nor did anyone bring the news of how he died.[22]

His grandson Vinayaditya proceeded to conquer foreign lands and captured many cities. At last he came to a city in the East. Its king was made to fear Vinayaditya; he consulted his ministers and nobles to seek their opinion in this matter. His senior ministers submitted to him that Ratnatir was a mighty king and they could not stand against him in battle. His chief minister said to him that it was difficult to repel his attack. But now that the king had asked for his counsel, he would advise him to surrender to Vinayaditya. This would enrage him and he would order that his nose be chopped off which would be followed by his expulsion from the city. After his nose would be chopped off and following his expulsion [from the city], he would join the enemy and devise some plan of destroying him.

When the enemy came to know of the minister’s affairs and the news reached Vinayaditya, he made him his associate in conquering the neighbouring lands. The crafty minister, full of deceit and guile as he was, led Vinayaditya to take a route where no water was available for ten to twelve days [of their journey], and a fairly large number of his men and beasts perished. Seeing through the deceit and craftiness of the minister, Vinayaditya asked him what his objective was in [doing this]. The minister told him that he wanted to get rid of him so that the country of his king was spared the scourge that he was. When Vinayaditya heard this, he gave him a robe of honour and other rewards and also extended favour to his king.

From there Vinayaditya went to the countries of Kesh and Bahrain where he met with a disastrous defeat resulting in heavy loss of men and material. Along with a handful of his followers, the king fell into the hands of the king of Bahrain who placed them all in the custody of his mother, so that she could keep an eye on them. One day Vinayaditya threatened her with dire consequences for her son. Completely bewildered, she asked him how his capacity for retaliation had grown during his captivity.

Meanwhile, there blew a strong gale and he, as well as the mother of the king, embarked for Mabar.[23] In that place there was a man-eater and the king found himself unable to kill it. Vinayaditya put his left hand into the jaw of the lion and with his right hand rent it asunder, which surprised the king of Mabar. He summoned him to his presence and bestowed upon him robes of honour and other rewards and gave him his daughter in marriage.[24] A large contingent of troops was despatched under his command to ccnquer the country of Pars.[25] He brought those lands under his sway and totally subjugated their people. Then he went back to Kashmir to continue with his rule over that land.

Once, while he was riding a horse, his whip slipped out of his hand. Thereupon he bade one of his attendants present there to reach him the whip. The attendant declined to oblige [him] saying that it was not his job. He was a courier called Potkan in Kashmiri. Enraged by his audacity, the king ordered that he be given a proper assignment forthwith. Then he wrote down a message, handed over the document to him, and directed [him] to carry it to the ruler of Lank, which is a big and famous city of India. The name of the ruler of this city was Dados [sic].[26] The message was that the king of Gang[?] despatch one thousand and five boats forthwith to him for the purpose of building a fort. Hardly had the messenger embarked when an enormous fish gulped down the boat along with all the passengers. The messenger had a sword with which he pierced the belly of the fish which caused its death.[27] The carcass was cast ashore near the city of Kajendan. The messenger emerged from the belly of the fish which amazed the people of Kajendan. They enquired of him about this happening. As a proof of what he had told them, they found the letters of command from [the king of Kashmir] on his person, and carried these to the king of Gang. On knowing all that had happened, the king of Gang despatched along with the Potkan a convoy of one thousand and five boats. When he reached the outskirts of the city of Kashmir he informed the king about the coming of the demons of the ruler of Gang. The ruler of Kashmir sent pulses and many thorny fruits for them. The daily quota of ration for the demons, consisting of pulses and cereals was sent to them till the fort was completed at Andarkol.[28] Here the king reigned for seventy years. Then he handed over the reins of government to his son named Bardanatant[29] [sic] . The kingship then passed on to Kashshil [sic], and then to Rama Chand, and after his death to Onta Dev. He was miserly and so greedy for wealth that he ordered his daughters to take to prostitution in the streets to extract money from people.

There was a man, Brahman by name, who was notorious for his licentiousness. After his death he was survived by his wife and son, who fell in love with the daughter cf the king. On learning of her son’s passionate love for the princess, his mother admonishingly told him that he had hardly inherited anything from his father which could help him in realizing his objective. All that his father had left behind was a dinar.[30] which had been put in his mouth at the time of his cremation. On knowing this, he visited the spot where his father’s dead body had been cremated. There he was able to find the coin which he, later on, presented to the princess and succeeded in fulfilling his desire. Next day, along with other girls, she went to see the king. He was delighted to see the standard coin, and bade his nobles to summon its owner. The Brahman’s son presented himself [before the king]. He asked him how he had procured the dinar and asked him questions about his passionate love [for the princess]. After knowing the whole story, he sought from his sagacious minister an answer to the question whether a person carried with him any worldly possessions after his death. The minister told him that a dead man carried with him nothing but memories of his good deeds, his evenhanded justice to his subjects and of his acts of enduring benevolence. On hearing these words, the king repented over his deeds. He then ordered the building of schools, laying of the foundations of prayer-houses and construction of bridges and roads. He distributed all his worldly possessions among the destitute and the mendicants. He then restored to his subjects their due rights. Of his line there were nine [persons], who ruled one after another over a period of three hundred and sixty years. During their reign they amassed three hundred and sixty treasures, which were ordered to be sealed.

In those days. there lived a distraught person, who held a stone under his arm and went to the king exhorting him to bury his traesure (the stone) along with his treasure. The king said to him, “O you mad person ! What you have is a stone and not a treasure.” He replied that a profitless treasure, a remorseless [sic] heart, and untimely anger were of a lesser value than that stone. The king uttered a cry, beat his head, and told him that he was right. He added that one should pay attention to words and not to the person who utters them. He opened his treasures and distributed their wealth among soldiers, destitutes and the poor. Soon after, the king breathed his last.

During his days, there lived a hermit who, on hearing the news of the king’s death, expressed sorrow for the loss of his charitable acts. He transferred his soul into the body of the [dead] king and brought him back to life. The king expressed his thanks to God for having been revived to life after his death. This news spread through the lands of India. Learned men assembled to make a submission to the king that enquiries be made if someone had expired recently. These revealed that a hermit had died and his body had been burnt immediately lest the soul returned to it. Thereafter the king ruled for thirty-six years and then died.

His death led to dissension among the nobles. They resolved that whosoever entered the city gate first on the next morning would be proclaimed king. The first to do so next morning was a mendicant. He was made king and the crown and the throne were given to him. His descendants ruled for four hundred years. The last of their house was named Harshid [sic]. [31] He invented the art of carving idols out of wood, stone, chalk and clay, [whereas] formerly these used to be cast in gold and silver [32] only. Another king[33] who lived in those days had two sons. Harshid [sic] decided to kill both of them because his nobles[34] were favourably disposed towards them. On learning of Harsha’s intention, both of them fled for their lives.[35] He pursued them but was unable to lay his hands on them. However, he killed their parents and returned [to his place]. The boys received the news of the killing of their mother[36] and sought assistance from the rulers of neighbouring regions.[37] They marched against Harsha. In the fighting that ensued, he was defeated and killed.[38] His domain, crown and throne passed on to the elder of the two brothers, who meted out justice [to his people]. Twelve persons of his line reigned successively; the last of them, Shiv Dev by name, ruled in A. H. 750 (A. D. 1349).[39]
During his days, there lived a king in India named Shri — [40] who had a giant-like physique. He attacked the king of Kashmir, killed him and occupied his country. He [Shri ---] ruled for a hundred years. Towards the end [of his reign], he was attacked by Shri [Shir?] Akramadit[sic][41] who wrested from him the city of Kashmir. He (Shri) was killed, leaving behind him his minor daughter and son, who fled to a foreign country. For many years they lived in the hollow of a tree. In due course of time their progeny increased numerically — . When asked about their antecedents, they said that they were the offspring of the tree. They also said that formerly there lived a king in India Shri Harsha Dev by name, who had given Kashmir to their ancestors. Then they attended to the task of developing Kashmir. He and his descendants reigned for three hundred years. They were followed by the aforesaid Shri Akramadit [sic]. Then came Rama, the paternal uncle of Shiv Dev. He was attacked by the Mongol army. Under the orders of Qaan[42] (Gur), the commander of the troops [of Qaan] besieged the city of Kashmir and plundered its people. Ram Dev tried to run away [on horseback] but was pursued by the enemy. He jumped into a river and crossed it.

The Mongols stayed on in Kashmir for six months, plundering and pillaging. After they returned to their native land, Ram Dev re-entered Kashmir. He gained control over the kingdom, defeated the Mongols, and later on raised an army. When Miku (Mangu) Qaan[43] came to know of it, he sent his troops under the command of Salinuyan to deal with Ram Dev. The city of Kashmir was once again besieged and its elders were put to the sword or taken prisoner. After Ram Dev’s death, his brother, Laxma (Laxman) Dev, ascended the throne on the orders of Miku (Mangu) Qaan and Hulagu Qaan. [44]

Laxman Dev died in A.H. 531 (A.D. 1136), and was succeeded by Zeyeh Sehm Dev[45] as the lord of Kashmir. During his reign in A. H. 535 (A.D. 1140), Malla Chand,[46] Raja of Nagarkot, came to Kashmir and after aligning himself with Zeyeh Sehm Dev, requested him to make him the commander of his troops.[47] Zeveh Sehm Dev reigned for about twenty-seven years and died in A. H. 555 (A.D. 1160).[48] He was succeeded by his son Parmat Dev[49] who reigned for nine years and six months and died in A. H. 568 (A.D. 1172). After him, came his son Vanta Dev [Onta Dev], who reigned for nine years and two days and died in A.H. 577 (A.D. 1181). His son Bupeh (Vupeh) Dev remained in power for nine years, four months and two days, and died in A.H. 586 (A.D. 1190). Then came his son[50] Zaseh Dev[51] who reigned for eighteen years and thirteen days until his death in A H. 604 (A.D. 1208). He was succeeded by his son Zageh Dev, who, after ruling for fourteen years and two months, died in A.H. 618 (A. D. 1221).[52] He was succeeded by his son Razeh Dev.

During the days of this Razeh Dev, Gaga Chand,[53] a descendant of the house of Chandas became the commander of his troops. Earlier rulers [of Kashmir] had confined themselves to the territories of Kashmir, and did not venture to annex the adjoining lands. But this Razeh Dev, on the advice of Gaga Chand, who also commanded his troops, subjugated and annexed the areas adjoining the kingdom of Kashmir. In the pargana of Lar, Gaga Chand built the fort of Gagangir.[54]

Razeh Dev’s reign lasted twenty-three years, three months and twenty-nine days. He died in A.H. 641 (A.D. 1243), and after him came his son Sangram Dev. During his reign, Balad Chand, [55] son of Gaga Chand, assumed the command of his army. He founded the locality of Bardi Mar[56] in the city. When Sangram Dev constructed Sangram Itoo [sic][57] in the town of Bejeh Belareh.[58] Balad Chand founded Chandpuryar[59] in that town.

Sangram Dev’s reign lasted sixteen years, and he died in A.H. 657 (A.D. 1258). His son Ram Dev succeeded him and ruled for twenty-one years, one month and twelve days and died in A.H. 678 (A.D. 1279).[60] Then came his son Lachman Dev[61] who ruled for thirteen years, three months and twelve days. The command of his troops was in the hands of Balad Chand’s son Sangram Chand.[62] In A.H. 691 (A.D. 1293), Lachman Dev breathed his last,[63] and was succeeded by his son[64] Simha Dev who reigned for fourteen years and six months and died[65] in A.H. 705 (A.D. 1305). Then came his son[66] Suh Dev who ruled for nineteen years, three months and twenty-five days. Their commander was Rama Chand the son of Sangram Chand.


1. The chronicles of Kashmirian kings are mentioned in Kalhana’s Rajatarangini: Suvrata’s handbook of historical poems, Nilamata Purana, Ksemendra’s Nrpavali, Chavillakar’s work and the “eleven works of former scholars.” See Rajat Vol. I, ‘Introduction’, p. 24, Vol. II, p. 365 et seq.

2. ‘ba galam-i Kashmiri’ of the text does not mean Kashmiri language as it is used now. It obviously means Sanskrit in Sarada script. The codex archstypus on which Stein based the text of Rajatarangini is in Sarada script.

3. Regarding the calendar of “the people of Kashmir,” see al-Biruni’s India (tr. Sachau), Vol. II, p. 8; Buhler’s Kashmir Report, p. 38, passim; and Rajat. Vol. I, p. 25.

4. The author considers India a foreign country throughout the text.

5. For the story of Satisaras and the prayers of Kashyapa, see Buhler’s Report, p. 39 and Rajat. Vol. I, pp. 26-27 and Vol. II, pp. 388-89. Three angels referred to are Druhina, Upendra, and Rudra.

6. See Rajat. i, 57n.

7. 1 kuroh is approximately two miles.

8. The name Srinagar is nowhere mentioned in the text; instead we have the ‘city of Kashmir’ (Shahr-i-Kashmir). In Ferdawsi’s Shahnameh also Shahr-i-lran ( sometimes IranShahr) is used to denote the capital city of Iran. (Shahr = Shathra in Avestic).

9. Pravarasena II (3186-3248 Loukika) of Gonanda dynasty made extensive conquests in the south and the north. He built the capital town Pravarapura. See Cunningham’s Ancient Geography of Kashmir, p. 91. The city contained thirty-six lakh houses. See Rajat, i, 356.

10. See Rajat, i, 374. It was in the temple of Pravaresa that King Pravarasena II attained spiritual perfection. A breach or an opening in the temple could be seen in Kalhana’s days. He writes that rising into the sky, King Pravarasena “joined in his body the assembly of tho Lord of Beings (Siva) who is also called Maheshwara.” Stein identified its ruins at a place now occupied by the Ziorat of Bahau’d-Din Sahib near the present Nowhatta locality in Srinagar, See Rajat. i, 350-51n.

11. Pravarsena II was succeeded by his son Yudhisthira II and not by Ratnaditya. See Rajat. iii, 379. Ratnaditya of the text is perhaps a reference to Ranaditya the son of Yudhisthira II and the younger brother of Narendraditya (Lahkhana), the successor and son of Yudhisthira II. Ranaditva’s reign lasted three hundred years, which appears to be an error in the text of Rajatarangini. See Rajat. iii, 470.

12. The succession list of Gonanda rulers in Rajatarangini does not include any king by the name of Onta Deva. However, a silver coin of Lahkhana, the grandson of Pravarasena, bears the legend (Raja Lahkhana Udyaditya. See Cunningham’s Later Indo-Scythians, p. 97. Onta Deva might be the scribe’s mis-writing of Udyaditya who ruled for thirteen years (3286-3299 Loukika).

13. Lalitaditya Muktapid (377 Loukika/A.D. 700-736), the fifth ruler in the line of Karkota dynasty, ruled for thirty-six years, seven months and eleven days and not eighty years. See Rajat. i, 136 and iv, 366.

14. On the site of Parihasapura and the identification of its shrines with the ruins of Paraspor Udar, see Rajat. Vol. II, Note F.

15. Kalhana’s version is that Lalitaditya built the town at a time when he was given to merry jesting (parihasa) and, therefore, its name. See Rajat. i, 194.

16. Kalhana mentions a great stone pillar, fifty-four spans high, on the top of which Lalitaditya installed the image of Garuda. Ibid.

17. The title Zu’l-Qarniain suggests that the author has drawn the material from some Parsian or Arabic source. For speculations about the identificarion of Zu’l-Qarnain, whose mention is made in the Qur’an, see Dairatu’l-Ma ‘arif, Lahore, 1973, Vol. X pp. 61-62 and Maulana Abu’l-Kalam Azad’s Tarjumanu’l-Qur’an, sura al-Kahaf, 18.

18. It cannot be said with certainty which of the several idols installed by Lalitaditya was ardently worshipped. Kalhana mentions several temples of his; Parihasakesava, Muktakesava, Govardhanadhara, and Brhadbuddha. See Rajat. i, 195 and et seq. However, the site of the temple Jyestharudra (present-day Zithyer) built by Lalitaditya is still visited by Kashmiri Pandits. See Rajat. i, 113n.

19. This seems to be a distorted version of the story given in Rajatarangini about Cankuna, the brother of the magician Kankanavarsa, whom Lalitaditya had brought from Tukhara. See Rajat. i, 246 et seq. For an explanation of the allegory, see verse 260. For Tuhkhara. see J.R.A.S. (NE), Vol. VI, p. 94 et seq.

20. It is not clear whether it is the sixth vear of his reign or of his expedition outside his lands.

21. No historical work lists this name among the successors of Lalitaditya.

22. Lalitaditya’s last instructions to his ministers through their messenger indicate that he had taken a firm decision not to return to Kashmir from the extensive expeditions in the cold northern regions. See Rajat. i, 337.

23. Muslim historians have generally used Mabar for Malabar, which is a town on the south-western coast of India.

24. In Rajatarangini, the story of the killing of a man-eater is associated with King Lalitaditya’s grandson Jayapida. It was King Jayanta of Gauda who gave his daughter Kalyana Devi in marriage to King Jayapida for his bravery in killing the lion. The village of Kalyanapura (present–day Kalampur) was founded by her. See Rajat. i, 453.

25. Focus is on reference to Pars, the southern province of Iran.

26. According to Hasan, the name of the king was Vibhisna. See T.H.K. p. 94.

27. There are several versions of this story. Kalhana, for example, writes that king Jayapida once sent one of his envoys to bring five Raksasas from the king of Lanka. The envoy fell from the ship into the sea and was devoured by a great fish. He, however, freed himself by destroying it. See Rajat. i, 503-4. Also the Rajatarangini of Jonaraja tr. J. C. Dutt, New Delhi, 1986, p. 94.

28. Andarkot, the ancient Abhyantara Kotta on the Sumbal lake was built by King Jayapida. See Rajat. iv, 506-11n, and Buhler’s Report, p. 13 et. seq. The story in the text is perhaps a distortion of the event related to the raising of the castle called Jayapura. See Rajat. iv, 506.

29. Possibly the corrupted form of Varman. If so, the possibility is that the author is alluding to the ascendency of the house of Utpala. ‘His son,’ therefore, refers to Avantiverman. the son of Sukhavarman. See Rajat. v, 713. Another possible name could be Varnata who succeeded his father Yasaskara in A.D. 948. See Rajat. vi, 90-91. In TMH it is Barnadadat, the son of Raja Dowla Chand. MS. f. 11b.

30. Sanskrit dinnara is Kashmiri dyar. For details, see Rajat. Note H.

31. Perhaps Harsa (A.D. 1089-1101), the last ruler of the first Lohara dynasty.

32. That Harsa was versed in “all the sciences” is attested to by Kalhana in his lengthy account of Harsa. But there is no reference to his ability to carve idols out of wood, etc. See Rajat. i, 941.

33. Perhaps it is a reference to Malla, who was of the line of Harsa.

34. It could possibly be Thakkana, the most outstanding of Harsa’s nobles. Rajat. vii, 1252.

35. The two brothers took refuge with the powerful Damaras of Utrasa (Votrus). Rajat. vii, 1254, II. 474.

36. If the allusion is to the sons of Malla, then it was the father (Malla) who had been killed and not the mother. See Rajat. vii, 1481 et seq.

37. These could possibly be the rulers of Rajpuri (Rajouri) and the king of Kalinjar. See Rajat. vii, 1256.

38. Perhaps the author refers to the struggle for power between Harsa and the two sons of Malla, Sussala and Uccala, and the killing of Harsa in A.D. 1101. See Rajat. vii, 1254,

39. Suh Dev was the last of the Hindu rulers of Kashmir. He ruled for nineteen years and four months. See THK. p. 160.

40. There is a gap in the text. Subsequent gaps will be marked as —.

41. He could possibly be the same Vikramaditya who is mentioned by Hiuen-tsiang as the predecessor of Siladitya. He ruled in the first half of the sixth century. See Max Mullar’s India, p. 286, and J. Bo. Br. R.A.S., 1861, p. 208. Kalhana’s chronicle does not record Vikramaditya’s expedition to Kashmir. But he had decreed that Matrgupta would be the lord of Kashmir. See Rajat. iii, 125, and T.M.H. MS. f. 14b.

42. The allusion may be to an incursion by the troops of Chingiz or Hulagu. For details of Mongols in Kashmir, see K. Jahn’s “A Note on Kashmir and the Mongols,” in Central Asiatic Journal, II (3), 1956. pp. 176-80. Also see The World History of Rashid al-Din, (tr. Basil Gray), London, 1978, 6th Chapter, Plate 23.

43. Mangu Qa’an (Khan) was the grandson of Chingiz, and these events took place during A.D. 1251 to 1256. During the reign of Mangu, two great expeditions were sent against China and Persia. The Chinese expedition was entrusted to Kublai, a brother of Mangu. See Browne’s Literary History of Persia, Vol. II, p. 452.

44. The Mongol incursion into Kashmir could have been a part of Kublai’s expedition to China. But Hulagu’s consent to Laxman Dev’s accession to the throne of Kashmir must have been given by him after he assumed power following the death of Mangu.

45. He is Jayasimha of Rajat, who ruled from A.D. 1128 to 1149. He is known as Jayasimha Dev and Jayasimha Raj Dev. See J.A.S.B. 1879, p. 281.

46. Mallacandra, secion of Susrama, the ruler of Trigarta, See Jonar. p. 50, 2n.

47. Jayasimha’s troops under the command of Mallacandra fought the Turks. See Jonar. p. 51, 2n. Also see TMH. MS. f. 31, and TNK. MS. f.35.

48. He was slain by the Turks. See THK. p. 153.

49. Parma Deva is known variously: Parmanuka in Jonar. (p. 52), Parmandi in Rajat. (viii, 1608), Parmandadeva in Tapar Inscription (S.P.S. Museum, Srinagar), and Parmadeva and Paradeva in the coins. See J.A.S.B., 1879, p. 281.

50. According to Jonaraja, he was succeeded by his younger brother and not his son. See St. 56.

51. Jassaka in Jonar, p. 54.

52. Jonarajas version of this is different. According to him Jageh Dey was once forced by his ministers to relinquish power and abandon Kashmir. See Stt. 67-68. About his death, he writes that he was secretly poisoned by Padma, the Lord of the Gate. (Dvarpati). St. 74.

53. For detailed information on this. see Rajat. viii, 43, 605 et seq.

54. For details see Rajat. ‘Introduction’, Vol. I, p. 119.

55. According to Jonaraja, he was the Damara of Lahara (Kashmiri Lar), who belonged to the family of Malla. He occupied one half of the city of Srinagar and even proclaimed himself as king. See p. 56, 5n, and St. 83. Also see Waqa ‘at-i-Kashmir, p. 25.

56. Bladhyamatha in Rajat Vol. II, p. 448, and Baldi Mar in THK. p. 157. AISO see Jonar, St. 82.

57. Setu (?). Sangram mohalla. See THK. p. 158.

58. It is the present-day Bijbehara (Kashmiri Vejehbror).

59. Harisandrapora in Amarnath Mahatmya, ed. Nilakanth Gurtu and Dina Nath Yachh, Srinagar, 1959, p. 41. Chandrayar in THK. p. 158, and Tsendradar/Tsandanyar in present-day Kashmiri.

60. Rama Dava’s queen Samudra constructed a matha in Srinagar. It was named Samudramatha which has given its name to the present-day locality of Sudramar. See Jonar, p. 59 and Rajat. Vol. II, p. 450.

61. Lachman Dev, according to Jonaraja, was Ram Dev’s adopted son. See, Stt. 108-9.

62. Several historians have written about the valorous deeds of this powerful Damara. According to Jonaraja, he succeeded in repulsing the invasion of the Turks (Turuskas) led by Khajlak (Kajjala). See St. 116, 118. See also Eliot’s History, Vol. III, pp. 525-27, and THK. p. 159.

63. His queen Ahala constructed a matha called Ahlamatha, which gives name to the present-day Ahlamar locality. See Jonar, p. 60, ln.

64. This relationship is not endorsed by Jonaraja. See St. 128.

65. He was assassinated by Darya with the support of Kamasuha. See Jonar. St. 128.

66. According to Jonar, he was not his son but brother. See p. 60.